THR Statements – Tobacco Harm Control quotes from leading officials

Nearly 100 organizations agree that E-cigarettes are “safer than smoking.”  All statements hyperlink to their websites.

(none of these organizations are funded or influenced by either the tobacco or vape industries)

 

World Health Organization EURO Office:  “There is conclusive evidence that:  Completely substituting electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery systems for combustible tobacco cigarettes reduces users’ exposure to numerous toxicants and carcinogens present in combustible tobacco cigarettes.

 

International Agency for Research on Cancer:  “The use of e-cigarettes is expected to have a lower risk of disease and death than tobacco smoking… E-cigarettes have the potential to reduce the enormous burden of disease and death caused by tobacco smoking if most smokers switch to e-cigarettes.

 

Cochrane systematic evidence review:  61 scientific studies (including 34 randomized control trials) involving 16,759 participants in a dozen countries:

FINDINGS:  Moderate‐certainty evidence that nicotine e-cigarettes are more effective for smoking cessation than nicotine replacement therapies [nicotine patches and nicotine gum].”  “We did not detect evidence of harm from nicotine e-cigarettes.

 

NOTE:  This is the most prestigious scientific society in the field of tobacco control.  The SRNT itself has no official statement.  However, 15 past-Presidents of the SRNT have published a joint statement.  All 15 agree, “Vaping can benefit public health, given substantial evidence supporting the potential of vaping to reduce smoking’s [death] toll.  …Frequent vaping increases adult smoking cessation [and] completely substituting vaping for smoking likely reduces health risks, possibly substantially.

 

Public Health England:  “Our new review reinforces the finding that vaping is a fraction of the risk of smoking, at least 95% less harmful, and of negligible risk to bystanders.  Yet over half of smokers either falsely believe that vaping is as harmful as smoking or just don’t know.

 

UK Royal College of Physicians:  “Although it is not possible to precisely quantify the long-term health risks associated with e-cigarettes, the available data suggest that they are unlikely to exceed 5% of those associated with smoked tobacco products, and may well be substantially lower than this figure… E-cigarettes are effective in helping people to stop smoking.

 

British Medical Association:  Significant numbers of smokers are using e-cigarettes (electronic cigarettes), with many reporting that they are helpful in quitting or cutting down cigarette use.  There are clear potential benefits to their use in reducing the substantial harms associated with smoking, and a growing consensus that they are significantly less harmful than tobacco use.

 

Cancer Research UK:  While the long-term health consequences of e-cigarette use are uncertain, the evidence so far suggests that e-cigarettes are far less harmful than smoking.  …There is also growing evidence to suggest that e-cigarettes can work successfully as an aid to cessation.  …There is insufficient evidence to support a blanket indoor ban on e-cigarette use, either on the basis of renormalisation of smoking or harm to bystanders from second-hand vapour.”  UPDATE:  …Studies that seem to find harms are ”usually conducted on animals or cells in the lab, …and the concentrations of e-cigarette vapour used are often much higher than people would be exposed to in real life… The best evidence available in humans shows e-cigarettes are far less harmful than smoking.  There is no good evidence that second-hand e-cigarette vapor is harmful to bystanders.

British Lung Foundation:  Experts have reviewed all the research done on e-cigarettes over the past few years, and found no significant risks for people using e-cigarettes.  …Swapping cigarettes for an e-cig can improve your symptoms of lung conditions like asthma and COPD.

 

UK Primary Care Respiratory Society:  “People currently using an e-cigarette to support a [smoking] quit attempt and unwilling to use alternative NRT options should be supported to continue their quit attempt using their preferred strategy.

 

Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation:  “The liquid and vapour in e-cigarettes do contain potentially harmful chemicals… These, however, are at much lower levels.  The other main difference between vaping and smoking is e-cigarettes don’t contain tobacco and don’t produce carbon monoxide, the two most harmful elements in cigarette smoke.  Whilst there is not yet sufficient research into the long-term effects of vaping, leading health organisations do believe e-cigarettes are at least 95% less harmful.

 

British Thoracic Society:  “BTS supports a harm reduction strategy… BTS acknowledges the report from Public Health England, and the recommendation that smokers who have tried other methods of quitting without success should not be discouraged from trying e-cigarettes (EC) to stop smoking, and that Stop Smoking Services should support smokers using EC to quit by offering behavioural support.

 

British Heart Foundation:  “Research suggests that e-cigarettes may be less harmful to the heart and circulatory system than tobacco in the short-term…  We know they contain significantly fewer of the harmful chemicals which can cause diseases related to smoking.

 

British Psychological Society:  “ E-cigarettes should be promoted as a method of stopping smoking.  RECOMMENDATIONS:  Improve education about the relative harms of smoking, nicotine and e-cigarettes; combine existing best practice …with the most popular quitting method (e-cigarettes) to …further boost [smoking cessation] success rates; offer e-cigarettes and technical support as part of the SSS and fund the services to support smokers to quit; …raise the cost of smoking and reduce the cost of e-cigarettes;…  promote unrestricted advertising of factual information.  Allow e-cigarettes to further evolve and improve so they [become even] safer, more appealing and satisfying for more smokers.

 

UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence:  “The evidence suggests that e-cigarettes are substantially less harmful to health than smoking but are not risk free.  Many people have found them helpful to quit smoking cigarettes.

 

UK Royal College of General Practitioners:  The evidence so far shows that e-cigarettes have significantly reduced levels of key toxicants compared to cigarettes, with average levels of exposure falling well below the thresholds for concern.

 

UK Royal Society for Public Health:  RSPH has welcomed a new comprehensive evidence review on e-cigarettes published by Public Health England (PHE).  The report reflects an up-to-date evidence base that is increasingly pointing in the same direction:  not only that vaping is at least 95% less harmful than smoking, but also that it is helping increasing numbers of smokers to quit.

 

Stroke Association UK:  “Current evidence shows that the risk to health posed by e-cigarettes in the short term is likely to be considerably less compared to smoking.

 

Action on Smoking and Health UK:  “It has been estimated that e-cigarettes are 95% less harmful than ordinary cigarettes.  There is negligible risk to others from second-hand e-cigarette vapour.  …The lifetime cancer risk of vaping has been assessed to be under 0.5% of the risk of smoking.  [But] Public understanding of the relative harms of e-cigarettes [vs smoking cigarettes] have worsened over time and are less accurate today than they were in 2014.”  “The widespread use of snus [a smokeless oral tobacco product] by Swedish men, displacing tobacco smoking, is responsible for the incidence of tobacco-

related mortality in Swedish men being significantly lower than any other European country.

 

UK National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training:  “Experts estimate that e-cigarettes are, based on what we know so far, around 95% safer than cigarettes.  Smoking is associated with a number of very serious health risks to both the smoker and to others around them.  Therefore, smokers who switch from smoking tobacco to e-cigarettes substantially reduce a major risk to their health. …Nicotine does not cause smoking related diseases, such as cancers and heart disease.”

 

UK Royal College of Psychiatrists:  “Smoking rates among people with severe mental illness are much higher than in the general population… While we do not fully understand the long-term risks, psychiatrists should advise their patients that e-cigarettes are an effective option for some people to give up smoking, and are substantially safer than continued tobacco use.  All mental health providers should have policies in place that facilitate the safe and effective use of e-cigarettes.

 

Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain:  “E-cigarette aerosols contain fewer numbers and lower levels of most toxicants than smoke from combustible tobacco cigarettes and are generally considered likely to be significantly less harmful than smoking tobacco… E-cigarettes are one of several harm reduction options in the short-term to encourage smokers to stop using tobacco products.

 

UK Royal College of Midwives:  “All midwives and maternity support workers should be confident and competent in discussing smoking in pregnancy.  Nicotine Replacement Therapy [e.g., nicotine patches, nicotine gum] is safe in pregnancy and should be provided in line with evidence-based protocols to women and their partners.  E-cigarettes contain some toxins, but at far lower levels than found in tobacco smoke.  If a pregnant woman who has been smoking chooses to use an e-cigarette (vaping) and it helps her to quit smoking and stay smokefree, she should be supported to do so.  If a woman has switched completely to vaping and is not smoking at all, she should be recorded as a non-smoker.  Based on the available evidence on e-cigarette safety, there is no reason to believe that use of an e-cigarette has any adverse effect on breastfeeding.

 

LGBT Foundation:  “Vaping is around 95% less harmful than smoking tobacco.  Unlike cigarettes, e-cigarettes don’t contain tobacco and don’t produce carbon monoxide, two of the most harmful components found in tobacco smoke.  Many e-cigarettes allow the user to reduce the strength of nicotine used over time, meaning they can cut down at a rate that suits them.

 

UK Teratology Information Service (UK government Public Health Service):  There is strong evidence that smoking during pregnancy increases the chance of miscarriage, certain birth defects, premature birth and poor growth of the baby in the womb, which has been linked to health problems later in life.  …Many healthcare professionals believe that vaping exposes the baby to fewer toxic chemicals than smoking.  Vaping may therefore be an option for pregnant women who cannot stop smoking using other nicotine replacement products [e.g., nicotine patches, gum, mouth spray, nasal spray and lozenges].

 

London Fire Brigade:  “Smoking is the number one cause of fatal fires and one of the top causes of accidental fires in the home.  …Fire chiefs now urge smokers to take up vaping to reduce the risk.  Our message is simple:  Quit smoking or risk dying in a fire.  We would urge you to stop smoking completely, but fully appreciate this is your decision.  If you still need that nicotine fix, vaping is a much safer alternative.  …We have not had any reports of injuries or deaths caused by e-cigarettes.”  [NOTE:  (1) In the USA, smoking causes 18,100 residential fires and 590 fire deaths every year, (2) Li-ion battery fire risks are rare, and no more likely from ecigs than cell phones, laptops, and portable battery chargers.]

 

UK National Fire Chiefs Council:  “There are an estimated 2.9 million adult vapers in Britain, almost all of whom are smokers and ex-smokers.  In March 2016, it was reported that there were 113 fires caused by e-cigarettes in three years.  Incident Recording System (IRS) data shows that there have been over 16,000 smoking-related fires over the same period.  These figures indicate the higher risks associated with smoking.  An expert independent evidence review published by Public Health England concluded that vaping devices are significantly less harmful to health than cigarettes and have the potential to help smokers quit smoking.”  [NOTE:  All Li-ion batteries have a rare fire risk; not just e-cigarettes.]

 

Public Health Wales:  “The majority of smokers who make a quit attempt do so without specialist support.  For these smokers, ENDS [e-cigarettes] may prove helpful in achieving a successful quit. …If you are a smoker who is unwilling or unable to stop smoking now, switching completely from smoking tobacco to using e-cigarettes will significantly reduce the risks to your health.

 

National Health Service Scotland consensus statement on e-cigarettes:  Smoking kills.  Helping people to stop smoking completely is our priority.  …There is now agreement based on the current evidence that vaping e-cigarettes is definitely less harmful than smoking tobacco.

This statement was created and endorsed by:  Action on Smoking & Health Scotland • Cancer Research UK • Chest Heart & Stroke Scotland • Chief Medical Officer for Scotland • NHS Ayrshire and Arran • NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde • NHS Lothian • NHS Tayside • Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation • Royal College of General Practitioners • Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh • Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow • Royal Environmental Health Institute of Scotland • Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy • Scottish Consultants in Dental Health • Scottish Thoracic Society • UK Centre for Tobacco & Alcohol Studies • University of Edinburgh • University of Stirling

 

Health Information and Quality Authority (HIQA), Ireland:  “Half of smokers in Ireland report making at least one quit attempt every year.  The most popular cessation method is unassisted quitting (50%) followed by e-cigarettes (29%) and nicotine replacement therapy (12%). …While toxic chemicals may be present in e-cigarette vapour, they are at a lower concentration than in cigarette smoke. …Risk to bystanders from ‘passive vaping’ appears to be very low.

 

New Zealand Ministry of Health:  The Ministry considers vaping products could disrupt inequities and contribute to Smokefree 2025.  The evidence on vaping products indicates they carry much less risk than smoking cigarettes but are not risk free.  Evidence is growing that vaping can help people to quit smoking.  There is no international evidence that vaping products are undermining the long-term decline in cigarette smoking among adults and youth, and may in fact be contributing to it.

 

Position Statement:  “Vaping is not harmless but it is much less harmful than smoking.  Vaping has the potential to help people quit smoking and contribute to New Zealand’s Smokefree 2025 goal.

Organizations that support this statement include:  NZ Ministry of Health; Health Promotion Agency/Te Hiringa Hauora (HPA); Action for Smokefree 2025 (ASH); National Training Service (NTS); New Zealand Medical Association (NZMA); All District Health Boards; Pharmacy Guild of New Zealand; New Zealand Heart Foundation; New Zealand College of Midwives; Parents Care Centre.

 

New Zealand Medical Association:  “It is likely that e-cigarettes will be an effective tool for smokers who want to quit. There is general scientific consensus that the exclusive use of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes is considerably less harmful than smoking. …We support making nicotine-containing e-cigarettes legally and readily available in New Zealand for adults.

 

Cancer Society of New Zealand:  “E-cigarettes may help reduce smoking prevalence – and achieve the Smokefree goal – if they act as an effective aid to quitting completely, particularly as they have a high degree of acceptability as a quit tool amongst smokers…  The Cancer Society of New Zealand supports the cautious implementation of legislation to encourage e-cigarette use to help smokers stop smoking.

 

NZ Heart Foundation:  “While e-cigarettes are not 100% harm free, they are substantially (up to 95%) less harmful than traditional smoking. …There is no doubt that smokers who switch to vaping dramatically reduce the risk to their health.  There is no evidence that vaping acts as a gateway to smoking…  While vaping has increased in popularity in New Zealand, regular use among adults is largely by current and ex-smokers.  The same goes for vaping among teenagers.

 

Asthma & Respiratory Foundation NZ:  “The Foundation acknowledges that the use of e-cigarettes as part of a wraparound smoking cessation programme may assist some people. …The Foundation does recognise that for some current smokers of traditional cigarettes  who have struggled to quit using current smoking cessation aids, the use of e-cigarettes or vaping products may help.

 

Royal Australian & New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP):  Research in Australia shows that 70% of people with schizophrenia and 61% of people with bipolar disorder smoke compared to 16% of those without mental illness.  …RANZCP recognises the potential harm reduction benefits presented by e-cigarettes and vaporisers for people living with mental illness, and the need for legislative reform for these to be realised. The RANZCP therefore recommends:  Exemption of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes and vaporisers from the restrictions imposed under the Poisons Standard so that they may be subject to stringent and suitable regulations as consumer products [and] lower rates of taxation for e-cigarettes and vaporisers compared to smokable tobacco products to ensure affordability for low-income smokers, and to provide a financial incentive to switch.

 

Drug and Alcohol Nurses of Australasia:  “People with drug and alcohol dependence have high

smoking rates [and] are more likely to die from a tobacco-related disease than from their primary drug problem.  E-cigarettes are battery-operated devices that heat a liquid solution, which may or may not contain nicotine into a vapour for inhalation, simulating the behavioural and sensory aspects of smoking, and they are currently seen as a legitimate form of tobacco harm reduction.”

 

Australian Government, Department of Health, Therapeutic Goods Administration:  “For people who have tried to achieve smoking cessation with approved pharmacotherapies but failed, and who are still motivated to quit smoking and have discussed e-cigarette use with their healthcare practitioner, nicotine containing e-cigarettes may be a reasonable intervention to recommend.

 

Royal Australian College of Physicians:  “The RACP acknowledges that e-cigarettes may have a potential role in tobacco harm reduction and smoking cessation for smokers unable or unwilling to quit.

 

Royal Australian College of General Practitioners:  “E-cigarettes can relieve cravings and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal as well as simulating the behavioural and sensory aspects of smoking. …It is reasonable to conclude that if used as a substitute rather than an addition, e-cigarettes are much less harmful than continuing to smoke.

Statement endorsed by:  Action on Smoking and Health Australia • Australian Association of Smoking Cessation Professionals • The Australian Dental Association • The Australian Practice Nurses Association • Cancer Council Australia • The National Heart Foundation of Australia • Lung Foundation Australia • Pharmaceutical Society of Australia • Quit Victoria • The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists • The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners • Royal College of Nursing, Australia • SANE Australia • Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand

 

European Commission Directorate-General, Health & Consumer Protection:  “In recent decades, the use of snus in Sweden has increased while the number of smokers in this country has decreased.  …There is general agreement that the use of moist snuff is less dangerous than tobacco smoking.  …It is undeniable that, for an individual, substitution of tobacco smoking by the use of moist snuff [“snus”] would decrease the incidence of tobacco related diseases.

 

German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment:  “According to current knowledge, e-cigarettes are less harmful than conventional tobacco products when used as intended.

 

German Society of Addiction (Deutsche Suchtgesellschaft – Dachverband der Suchtfachgesellschaften):  In general, one can assume that the vapor from an e-cigarette is much less harmful than conventional cigarette smoke and that the e-cigarette can be used for nicotine withdrawal if guideline-based psychotherapeutic and/or drug treatments for nicotine withdrawal are ineffective or unwanted.

 

French National Academy of Medicine:  “It is established that the vaporette is less dangerous than the cigarette… It is therefore preferable for a smoker to vape.  Since 2016, the High Authority for Health (HAS) considers it ‘as an aid to stop or reduce the consumption of tobacco by smokers.’  Santé Publique France indicates that at least 700,000 [French] smokers have quit using electronic cigarettes. …Smokers who were about to switch to vaporizing instead of tobacco should not hesitate…”  [Google Translate]

 

Institut National du Cancer, France:  “The e-cigarette …is not a tobacco product.  …The irritant and/or toxic effects of the components of the e-cigarette [vapor] are significantly lower than those of tobacco [smoke].  Tobacco-related cancers are caused by many carcinogenic substances [in tobacco smoke]… Carbon monoxide and fine particles produced by smoke are the main culprits of cardiovascular disease… Solid particles present in that smoke play an important role in the occurrence of respiratory failure.  These products do not exist at significant levels in the “vapor” of e-cigarettes.  A significant reduction in cancer risks is therefore expected in tobacco smokers who switch to e-cigarettes.  …We must assess the benefit-risk balance between this device and cigarettes which are the cause of 75,000 deaths each year in France.  [Google Translate]

 

French High Council for Public Health:  “E-cigarettes can be considered a smoking cessation aid for smokers who would like to completely break their habit.  [They] are a tool for reducing the risks of smoking.

 

French National Academy of Pharmacy:  The World Health Organization’s [anti-e-cigarette] position is incomprehensible.  Tobacco is responsible for 73,000 deaths in France.  The e-cigarette helps people quit smoking.  Its components are obviously less harmful than tobacco.”  [NOTE:  This is a Tweet from the Académie Nationale de Pharmacie.  Not an official position statement.]

 

US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine:  Conclusion 18-1. There is conclusive evidence that completely substituting e-cigarettes for combustible tobacco cigarettes reduces users’ exposure to numerous toxicants and carcinogens present in combustible tobacco cigarettes.”  E-cigarettes “are likely to be far less harmful than combustible tobacco cigarettes.

 

US Food & Drug Administration:  E-cigarettes are potentially less harmful forms of nicotine delivery for adults. …Many studies suggest e-cigarettes and noncombustible tobacco products may be less harmful than combustible cigarettes.”  “Make no mistake.  We see the possibility for ENDS products like e-cigarettes to provide a potentially less harmful alternative for currently addicted individual adult smokers who still want to get access to satisfying levels of nicotine without many of the harmful effects that come with the combustion of tobacco.

 

The FDA says, “Existing studies have shown that daily ENDS use is associated with significant reductions in combusted cigarette use.

 

FDA has now authorized, and confirmed the existence of, a category of non-medicine consumer nicotine products that are “appropriate for the protection of public health.”  Strangely, this regulatory hurdle is far higher than that for new deadly cigarette products.  So far, FDA has authorized 12 new and emerging nicotine products, confirming and validating the public health concept of Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR):

 

US Centers for Disease Control:  E-cigarettes expose users to fewer harmful chemicals than burned cigarettes.  E-cigarettes have the potential to benefit adult smokers who are not pregnant if used as a complete substitute for regular cigarettes and other smoked tobacco products.

 

US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration:  “E-cigarettes may help non-pregnant smokers if used as a complete substitute for all cigarettes.

 

American Cancer Society:  Based on currently available evidence, using current generation e-cigarettes is less harmful than smoking cigarettes.”  And “although the long-term effects of ENDS are not known, current-generation ENDS are markedly less harmful than combustible tobacco products.”  [NOTE:  This was ACS’ official statement from 2018-2019.  In November 2019, ACS stopped recommending e-cigarettes to adult smokers.  Their stated reason for this change was “e-cigarette use by young people.”  Still on ACS’ website:  “e-cigarette contains [sic] some cancer-causing chemicals, although in significantly lower amounts than in cigarette smoke… [and] People who have already switched completely from smoking to e-cigarettes should not switch back to smoking.” [Obviously, they’re still less harmful.]

 

American Heart Association:  “Participants who vaped exclusively showed a similar inflammatory and oxidative stress profile as people who did not smoke cigarettes or use e-cigarettes.  …Compared to participants who smoked exclusively, those who vaped exclusively had significantly lower levels of almost all inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers.

 

American Association of Public Health Physicians:  “Smoke-free tobacco/nicotine products, as available on the American market, while not risk-free, carry substantially less risk of death and may be easier to quit than cigarettes.  …Smokers who have tried, but failed to quit using medical guidance and pharmaceutical products, and smokers unable or uninterested in quitting, should consider switching to a less hazardous smoke-free tobacco/nicotine product for as long as they feel the need.  Such products include pharmaceutical Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) products used, off-label, on a long term basis, electronic “e” cigarettes, dissolvables (sticks, strips and orbs), snus, other forms of moist snuff, and chewing tobacco.

 

American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery:  “E-cigarettes may possibly help adult tobacco users to transition from traditional combustible cigarettes and oral tobacco to less harmful vapor products to satisfy their nicotine addiction.

 

US Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids:  “E-cigarettes could benefit public health if they help significantly reduce the number of people who use combustible cigarettes and die of tobacco-related disease.

 

US Truth Initiative:  “Researchers from Truth Initiative reviewed 686 peer-reviewed studies [and determined that] e-cigarettes pose substantially less harm than traditional cigarettes.  …Overall, e-cigarettes expose users to fewer toxins than cigarettes, and cigarette smokers who switched to e-cigarettes had reduced blood pressure and improved lung function.”  Further, “a smoker who switches completely to e-cigarettes from combustible cigarettes will substantially reduce exposure to toxic chemicals and health risk.  There is also some evidence that more frequent e-cigarette use may increase an individual’s likelihood to quit.

 

Government of Canada:  Vaping is less harmful than smoking.  Completely replacing cigarette smoking with vaping will reduce your exposure to harmful chemicals.  There are short-term general health improvements if you completely switch from smoking cigarettes to vaping products.

 

Canadian Heart & Stroke Foundation:  “Emerging evidence demonstrates that e-cigarettes are less harmful than conventional cigarettes.  Through the legalization of e-cigarettes containing nicotine, there is improved access to e-cigarettes for current smokers, therefore allowing adults more choice around alternative methods of nicotine intake and/or tobacco cessation.  …Those unable to quit smoking would be better off using e-cigarettes over the long-term, rather than continuing to smoke regular cigarettes.”

 

Canadian Lower-Risk Nicotine Use Guidelines (LRNUG):  “​​Funded by Health Canada’s Substance Use and Addictions Program, the LRNUG has developed several resources to help guide people who use, or are thinking about using nicotine, on how to lower the risk associated with these products.  …E-cigarettes with nicotine may be an effective cessation aid for people who use combustible tobacco.  People who switch from combustible tobacco to e-cigarettes will reduce their exposure to numerous toxicants and carcinogens.”  Quick Tips:  “Using tobacco in forms that don’t burn, like smokeless tobacco or heat-not-burn products, will reduce your exposure to harmful combusted chemicals including carbon monoxide.  [You can] further reduce your risk by switching to products that don’t have tobacco like NRT [e.g., nicotine patches or nicotine gum] or e-cigarettes.

 

Canadian Cancer Society:  “If you are a smoker who has tried but not succeeded with other quitting methods, you would be better off, from a health perspective, to use e-cigarettes if it helps you stay off conventional cigarettes… Research so far shows that to get the comparative health benefit of using e-cigarettes (that is, the lesser harm caused by e-cigarettes compared to the greater harm cause by conventional cigarettes), you should completely stop smoking conventional cigarettes.

 

Canadian Lung Health Foundation:  “If you don’t smoke, don’t start vaping… If you do smoke, switching completely to e-cigarettes may significantly reduce your exposure to toxic chemicals and carcinogens.

 

Consejo de Ministros de la República Oriental del Uruguay [Uruguayan Council of Ministries]:  “There are electronic devices for the administration of nicotine that use a technology by which dry tobacco is heated, with respect to which there are scientific data that indicate that they result in less exposure of users to toxic substances associated with traditional tobacco consumption.” [Google Translate]

 

Federation of Private Medical Practitioners’s Association, Malaysia:  “As an option in reducing health risk associated with smoking cigarettes, current smokers should be  counseled to switch to less harmful nicotine alternatives rather than having them continue cigarettes… The primary value of Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) is to reduce the negative consequences associated with  smoking cigarettes.  By definition, THR  offers an option for smokers who cannot or are unwilling to stop smoking, to switch to using other less harmful nicotine products.

 

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